Vaccines

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There are many vaccines available for use on goats and several even labeled for goats. Remember that goat kids are not able to process the vaccine until they are 12 weeks of age. If they are vaccinated before then, remember to vaccinate them again after 12 weeks of age. Does are vaccinated against CD&T two to four weeks before kidding. This ensures that the doe's antibodies are boosted and passed to her kids in the clostrum.

Most vaccines are administered to goats SQ, under the skin. Follow proper technique when given vaccines. Use sterile needles and syringes. Use one sterile needle to draw the vaccine out of the bottle, and different needles to vaccinate your animals. This prevents the vaccine from becoming contaminated. Use a clean needle for each animal if at all possible. This prevents contamination and infection of the injection sight and prevents you from spreading any blood-borne disease. Keep vaccines cool in the summer. Take a small cooler and a ice pack to keep the vaccine cool until it is used. Vaccines should be given in the loose hide between the front legs or behind the front elbows. This way if an abscess or lump does appear it is not mistaken for a CL abscess should the doe be sold or shown.

Vaccines are available in different combinations, and by different manufacturers. Most of the differences between manufacturer are the combination of antibodies, (what diseases it protects against) and the carrier used to deliver the vaccine. Work with your local veterinarians, breeder's, and county extension agents to find out what you need to vaccinate for and what combination of drugs best suites your situation. Use a vaccine that you trust.

Toxoids are vaccines made to provide long term protection against an organism. Usually it takes 21-30 days for the vaccine to be effective against an exposure. Some vaccines offer coverage for one year; others just for six months. Antitoxins provide immediate short-term coverage and last approximately 7-21 days. Antitoxins are also used for treatment of a specific disease. Antiserum is used to provide antibodies to protect newborns with questionable immunity, and for treatment.

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To control: anaphylactoid shock
Brand Name: Eprinephrine 1:1000
Availability: OTC
Withdrawal:
Indications: To treat anaphylactoid shock
Dosage: 1 ml per 100 lbs injected SQ
Goat Notes: Symptoms of anaphylactic shock include glassy eyes, rapid respiration, increased salivation, grinding teeth, staggering gait, tremors, and collapse. Always keep Epinephrine on hand, if a goat goes into anaphylactic shock you don't have but a couple of minutes to administer Epinephrine. Goats are specifically sensitive to penicillin injections. Usually anaphylactic symptoms are seen during the fourth of subsequent injections. Store in a cool dark place (refrigerate), do not use if product has turned brown or contains a precipitate.


To control: Clostridium perfrigens Type C & D
Brand Name: Bar-Vac CD/T, Vision CD & T, Ultrabac CD, Covexin 8, Vision 7, Clostridial 7 & 8 way, Fortress 7 & 8
Availability: OTC
Withdrawal: 21 days before slaughter
Indications: For use in healthy animals to aid in the prevention of entertoxemia caused by Clostridium perfrigens types C & D, and tetanus (Clostridium tetani)
Dosage: 2cc initial dose, followed by 2cc 21-30 days later.
Goat Notes: Injection site lumps and abscesses are common. Use proper technique to prevent secondary infection at injection site. Some of the 7 and 8 way vaccines such as Vision 7, and the Clostridial 7 and 8 ways do not contain the tetanus toxiod vaccine. Vaccinate does within 30 days of kidding. Breakthrough is common with any clostridia vaccine. Revaccinate every 3-6 months if you have frequent outbreaks of entertoxemia, or if goats are on full feed.


To control: Clostridium perfrigens Type C & D
Brand Name: C & D Antitoxin (Beohringer), Bovine Ecolizer + C,
Availability: OTC
Withdrawal: 21 days before slaughter
Indications: For prevention and treatment of enterotoxemia.
Dosage: C & D Antitoxin - 3 ml SQ or IM, double dosage for theorputic use
Goat Notes: The Bovine Ecolizer + C is an oral vaccine that provides protection against Clostridium perfrigens Type C and E.Coli when given at birth. This, or the antitoxin can be used in cases where the vaccination history of the doe is questionable. Clostridium perfrigens Type C attacks young kids up to 7 days of age. Type D is the strain that older goats get. Clostridium bacteria live in the dirt and are naturally found in the rumen. (tetanus is a clostridium bacteria). When the ph in the rumen becomes acidic these bacteria grow out of control. The antitoxin needs to be given upon first symptoms.


To control: Tetanus
Active Ingredient(s): Tetanus Toxiod, Tetanus Antitoxin
Availability: OTC
Withdrawal: 21 days before slaughter
Indications: For prevention or treatment of tetanus
Dosage: Toxoid - give at least 2 doses of 1 ml IM, 30 days apart; Antitoxin - preventative dose (effective 7-14 days) - 500-1,500 units IM or SQ. Antitoxin - treatment 1,500 units IM or SQ
Goat Notes: Tetanus antitoxin should be given when any surgery is done on a goat or kid (disbudding or castration). The small 1,500 unit bottles can be divided into thirds (approx. 1 1/2 cc) for disbudding kids. Use toxiod for long term protection (yearly vaccination), and antitoxin for immediate short-term protection or treatment.


To control: Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL)
Brand Name: Case-Bac; Caseous D-T; Autogenous(cultured) Vaccine
Availability: OTC, Autogenous Vaccines need to be manufactured under a veterinarian's instruction
Withdrawal: 60 days before slaughter
Indications: Vaccinate healthy non-infected animals only. The vaccine will not cure an infected animal, but will prevent infection of a healthy animal from contaminated surroundings.
Dosage: 2 ml SQ repeat initial dose 30 days later
Goat Notes: The CL vaccines manufactured for sheep are not labeled for goats. They have been used with some success. All the CL vaccines tend to swell at the injection site, and may cause discomfort for a couple of days. Vaccines can be cultured from an abscess and a vaccine manufactured. Autogenous (cultured) vaccines in which the bacterium is killed with ultrasound seem to be more effective.


To control: Chlamydia
Brand Name: Chlamydia Psittaci; Enzabort EAE-Vibrio
Availability: OTC
Withdrawal: 21 days before slaughter
Indications: For prevention of Chlamydia abortion is sheep
Dosage: 2 ml SQ prior to breeding, followed 2 ml 30 days later
Goat Notes: There may be some cross over immunity for Chlamydia caused pink eye.


To control: Sore Mouth
Availability: OTC, through extension service
Withdrawal: days before slaughter
Indications: For prevention of sore mouth in healthy sheep and goats
Dosage: Reconstitute vaccine, dip applicator into vaccine and scratch a bare (no hair ) area of skin 4-5 cm long. Scratches should be sufficient to break the skin, but not to draw blood. Most suitable site is the area inside the thigh.
Goat Notes: Caution this is a live vaccine. Sore mouth is contagious to humans. Take precautions when administering vaccine. Wear protective gloves and goggles. The value of this vaccine is negotiable. When you vaccinate you infect your ground when the scabs from the vaccine fall off. Sore mouth can only be contracted once. Best defense is to let it run its course and be done with it.


To control: Bacterial Pneumonia
Brand Name: Poly-Bac B 1, Poly-Bac B Somnus, One Shot, Poly-Bac B Somnus + IBR k
Availability: OTC
Withdrawal: 60 days before slaughter
Indications: To prevent bacterial pneumonia in cattle
Dosage: 2ml SQ, followed by a second dose 14 days later
Goat Notes: goat dosage 1 ml SQ, followed by a second dose 14 days later. Annual vaccinations should be within 30 days of kidding for transfer immunity. Choose vaccine for strains that are active in your area. Booster recommended during prolonged stress or exposure.


To control: Bacterial Pneumonia
Brand Name: Nasalgen
Availability: OTC
Withdrawal: 21 days before slaughter
Indications: To prevent IBR and Parainfluenza in cattle
Dosage: 2ml intranasal (1ml per nostril) Give at birth or stress.
Goat Notes:


To control: E. Coli
Brand Name: ScourGuard 3-K, Ovine Pili Shield
Availability: OTC
Withdrawal: 21 days before slaughter
Indications: Protect pregnant cows and their calves against viral and bacterial scours caused by E. Coli, Coronavirus, and Rotavirus.
Dosage: 2ml IM followed by a second dose 2-3 weeks apart.
Goat Notes: Give 2ml initial dose SQ with 2nd dose within 40 days of kidding, revaccinate if doe has not kidded within 30 days. Follow with annual booster within 30 days of kidding. There is some evidence that vaccinating does with this type of vaccine will help prevent FKS. Vaccinating the does during pregnancy have proven more effective than vaccinating kids at birth. It is also more cost effective.

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